FEATURES OF NATIONAL CRAFTSMANSHIP IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF WINTER HOUSING OF THE KAZAKH PEOPLE
The article considers the peculiarities of the location of wintering and winter pastures on lower reaches of Syrdarya and their differences from other regions. Wintering places were chosen on river valleys or near lakes, mountain hollows or between sand dunes with enough pasture places and protected from the wind. The size of winter pastures depended on the number of livestock and farm size. The places, where winter houses stood, passed by inheritance. Some Kazakhs used to live in nomad tents in winter. Many winter buildings of the Kazakhs refer to the end of the 18 – early 19th century. Many Kazakh villages, engaged in nomadic pastoralism, did not have permanent winter places, and continued nomadic lifestyle even in winter. Since the beginning of the 20th century with the transition of nomadic lifestyle to the settled the number of winter permanent houses increased. Considering dwellings in historical development, it is very important to plan correctly removability of their types in a spatial and geographical kontinium.
Keywords: Nomad, wintering, winter pastures, winter encampment, winter house, paddock.
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